Envy and Resentment in the Time of Coronavirus

In 2020, the usually bittersweet activity of browsing Facebook or Instagram, with their feeds full of vacation photos and pictures of friends’ kids, is often devoid of any sweetness. Instead, we’re faced with a feed full of anger, resentment, envy, jealousy, and indignation. As we’ve faced a year of COVID and political and social unrest, online interactions can become so toxic that taking a break from them has become synonymous with self-care.

Prof. Sara Protasi gave a public lecture, entitled “Envy and Resentment in the Time of Coronavirus” for Humanities Washington‘s fall online series, “What These Times Mean: Navigating 2020″. You can now watch the entire lecture and the Q&A below!

If that’s not enough, you can also read “Summer of envy: How the COVID-19 pandemic has put new light on the things we have and want” in The Globe and Mail, where journalist Jana G. Pruden draws on Professor Protasi’s expertise to decode what our envy tells us about ourselves in these strange pandemic times!

CFP: Ethics and Social Justice Prize

Fordham University’s Center for Ethics Education is organizing a new national undergraduate essay competition, the Ethics and Social Justice Essay Prize. This competition is open to all college seniors at accredited 4-year colleges and universities in the U.S. The competition, which has a top prize of $1,000, is intended to amplify historically underrepresented voices and perspectives on issues of societal import, and to encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical concepts as they are encountered personally and as members of society committed to social justice.

The theme for the 2020 competition is: Racial Justice: Realities and Possibilities.

Deadline: December 1, 2020.

For more information, including eligibility and submission information, please visit the essay prize’s website!

Quinn Bohner ’20: Summer Research on Art and Moral/Political Progress

Philosophy major Quinn Bohner ’20 embarked on a research project this summer, supervised by Professor Bill Beardsley, to explore the role of art in moral and political progress. (For more information on Summer Research Grants in Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences, look here!) Here is Quinn’s own description of the project:

My research is part of a broader attempt and interest in placing art in a broader scheme of moral and political progress. I tried to explain some of the ways in which experiencing an Other’s suffering in person is different from experiencing it in art, and to advance challenge and deconstruction of a reader’s ideology as an important objective of art.

I start with the moral phenomenology and art theory of Emmanuel Levinas, as he explains art as the shadow of reality, and the way art’s political impact relies on an individual’s willingness to apply the concerns art demonstrates about our world to ongoing urgent situations, rather than the direct object of the art, an event that has already passed (or is hypothetical), for instance understanding Picasso’s Guernica as a reflection on the broader horrors of war, rather than just a lament for a city and its residents.

From this, I introduce Louis Althusser’s theory of ideology as a fundamental part of every thinking person that can sustain or dismantle the status quo, that we can call an art reader or viewer’s attention to even if they are unwilling to attend to the particular details of ongoing wars of sweatshop labor. Then I explain how we can address someone’s ideology in fiction by reifying it in character traits (such as behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs) and showing its consequences and inconsistencies as the narrative progresses.

I conclude that ideology is an incredible object of criticism and opportunity for progress in art, and that deep and sympathetic character studies can serve this purpose very well.

We are very pleased to have two excellent student research projects in philosophy this summer, in addition to other research projects undertaken in other disciplines by philosophy majors and minors. Again, you can find a list of them at Summer Quest: A Celebration of Student Research, Scholarship and Creative Work!

Quinn Bohner ’20

Brian Kim ’21: Summer Research on the Rationality of Anger

Philosophy major Brian Kim ’21 embarked on a research project this summer, supervised by Professor Sara Protasi, to explore the rationality of anger. (For more information on Summer Research Grants in Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences, look here!) Here is Brian’s own description of the project:

My summer research project is focused on answering what seems like a relatively unassuming question: Is anger irrational? Separate from acting angry, or demonstrating one’s anger, the question is asking whether or not having anger is irrational. This isn’t a relatively new question to answer, rather it’s one that continues to escape consensus. When expanding out to literature on anger, I found a disparity in terms of a consistent definition on anger. Then, when looking to differences in the philosophical and empirical work, an even bigger problem arose: what is an emotion? A lack of consensus not only within disciplines, but between them on what emotions are adds another layer of depth. So in order to ask my primary question of “is anger irrational”, I had to answer “what is an emotion” and “what is anger” in that order to have a consistent answer.

To build my model of emotions, I use Heidegger’s Being and Time and his literature on moods as foundation. I chose Heidegger specifically because his work priorities an experiential viewpoint, something that is lacking in much of the literature. Empirical literature reveals anger and emotions to be understood by its physiological effects, in a sense by its outcomes. Philosophical works captured the opposite end of the spectrum, and instead craft anger through cognitive interpretation. While neither field ignores what it does not primarily focuses on, it’s often the case that certain elements of emotions are prioritized within disciplines. The experiential view that Heidegger offers a way to talk about emotions in terms of phenomena rather than physiological or cognitive responses. I do this by constructing further from his work on moods. It’s rather surprising, but very little is said about emotions in Being and Time. Heidegger elaborates extensively on moods and their relation to Being, but does not go further in separating out moods from emotions. My model is, in a sense, a possible interpretation of what an emotion is under a Heideggerian framework. This is, of course, just the outlines of a sketch, but even the scaffolding of my model revealed our emotions simultaneously in a new light and yet also in a familiar and intuitive way.

This project was deeply inspired by Professor Sara Protasi’s Philosophy of Emotions course that I took in Spring of 2020. I found, in doing research for the class, a niche of literature surrounding emotions, cognition, and continental philosophers ranging from Husserl to Sartre. I found myself particularly fascinated by this area and developed and grew that ideas I had about them into the research paper I completed this summer. While I found myself constantly revising and updating my theory, it was a really enlightening experience to struggle with such a broad and messy topic.

Studying emotions during quarantine was both an intensely positive and revealing experience, but also a particularly difficult and, often, frustrating one. I am incredibly thankful for the guidance and direction from Professor Protasi for not only for being my academic advisor for the project, but also for supporting me during the application process. I’m excited to see how my idea on the issue will grow as I continue to reflect as a learner.

You can hear more about Brian’s research, as well as other summer research by students in the philosophy department’s orbit, at Summer Quest: A Celebration of Student Research, Scholarship and Creative Work, on September 10, 2020 from 4-6pm PDT!

Brian Kim ’21

Congratulations Class of 2020 Philosophy Majors and Minors!

Over graduation weekend, we got to celebrate virtually a very dear group of philosophy majors  and minors.  While we missed the opportunity for an in-person toast, we had a chance to celebrate the graduates together with their families and friends.  Here are a few photos from the event.  Congratulations to you all!

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(graduates not pictured include: Eli, Izzy, Hannah, Jack, Dylan, Eric, Madilyn, Jacob, and Dane)

February 2020

Below are a few opportunities for philosophy majors to participate in summer institutes.  Many of these provide some type of funding.

Pittsburgh Summer Program (PSP)
The Pittsburgh summer program takes place from July 13th- 17th at the University of Pittsburgh and is intended to help give voice to those who are underrepresented in philosophy including but not limited to, people of color, those identifying as LGBTQ+, and first generation college students. The primary focus of the program is philosophy of science. Applications are due on March 1st and must include a cover letter, writing sample and faculty recommendation. For more information click here. 

Rutgers Summer Institute for Diversity in Philosophy
The Rutgers Institute for Diversity in Philosophy is intended for including voices which are not normally heard in philosophical discourse. Taking place July 19th-25th, attendees will have travel and room and board all provided for, in addition to a $250 stipend. Applications are due on April 10th and must include a writing response, writing sample, transcript and two faculty recommendations. For more information click here.

Philosophy of Law Undergraduate Summer School at Cornell (PLUSS)
The Cornell University Philosophy of Law Summer School takes place from June 21st-27th and primarily focuses on philosophy of law as it relates to social justice. Attendees with have their room and board covered as well as a $300 stipend to offset the cost of travel.  Applications are due on February 15th and require a two page writing response. For more information click here.

Summer Immersion Program in Philosophy at Brown
The Summer Immersion Program at Brown University takes place July 6th-17th. Attendees will have room and board covered as well as a $500 reimbursement for travel on top of another $500 stipend. Applications are due March 1st and must include a writing response, writing sample, transcript and two faculty recommendations. Fro more information click here 

UCSD Summer Program for Women in Philosophy (SPWP)
The UC San Diego summer program takes place on July 21st – 31st. Primarily focusing on supporting women in undergraduate philosophy applications are due on February 15th and must include a writing response, writing sample and faculty recommendation. For more information click here.  

COMPASS at Michigan
The University of Michigan COMPASS conference is intended for promoting diversity within the field of philosophy. The conference will take place on October 8th-10th and is due on April 15th. The application includes two writing responses as well as a writing sample. For more information click here. 

An Interview with Maia Bernick ’15

Maia Bernick

Interview by Colleen Hanson ’19

In recent years, the Department of Philosophy has interviewed alumni and graduating seniors about their experiences as philosophy majors, how philosophy has prepared them for post-graduation, and what advice they have for current students (you can find some of those interviews here and here.)

After graduating from the University of Puget Sound with a philosophy major and a bioethics emphasis, alumna Maia Bernick ‘15 studied law at the University of Seattle Law School. Bernick currently works for the Washington State Department of Health as a staff attorney. Bernick says, “The division I work in helps the healthcare profession programs ensure that everyone is following their standards of practice and rules and helping with public safety.”

When discussing her interests within philosophy, she said, “I am very interested in how philosophy is going to develop in advancing AI technologies, robotics, cybernetics and how that’s going to change our whole human identity because we’re going to have to compete with something that’s as smart as us and I don’t think we’re going to be able to handle it. The first thing that got me interested in AI/robotics was the whole imminent care crisis, with not as many younger folks and a huge generation of people in the next five to twenty years who are going to need long term care because they are seniors and we are critically understaffed in terms of long term care workers. So, people are starting to theorize how AI can kind of step in. As of right now, I don’t think we or anywhere else in the world have robust enough or reliable enough AI to actually apply any help. But maybe in the next 10-15 years, we could have nurse bots or bots that do the functions of medical assistants like take pulses and other kinds of readings, or bring people food/drinks – to kind of ease off that gap a little bit. That was the first area of robotics I was interested in and it kind of grew from there.”

When asked about the relationship between her philosophy major and her studies in law school, Bernick recommended against going to law school thinking that you will study philosophy, but she emphasized that this is “not to dissuade people from going to law school because it opens up a lot of doors. I think a lot of people have a closed mind about what a JD can give you, and it doesn’t just mean being an attorney. [You can] go into politics or rule writing, there’s just a lot of different fields.” She added that “the philosophy major is an excellent foundation in terms of skills to prepare you for law school. Because of persuasive writing and critical reading and analysis skills, you are going to be better off than a lot of your peers in law school who came in with different majors that don’t emphasize those skills.”

She went on to talk about the relationship between philosophy and the law, as well as her personal experiences learning about them:

“I interned with a judge and I helped with recommendation memoranda – which is basically when you look at a case and you say, ‘based on the law, this is what I recommend you rule.’ And you would research such law. I had one hell of a time doing this because I would be like, ‘The law says this, but public policy…’ ‘Public policy’ means ethics in the legal world; it is code for ethics. I didn’t get in trouble with my judge but I had to be told that when you’re making rulings, you can’t just use what you feel is ethically right – or even what is ethically right – because the law and ethics are not the same.”

“That’s one of the things I had learned here [at Puget sound] too is that…there are instances when [the law and ethics] do overlap, but I would venture to say that it’s the minority of the time. So I think that if you’re gung-ho about ethics, law school may not be the place for you because you’re not going to get to it really. Or, don’t go into a field after law school where the strict reading of the law matters because you will feel frustrated.”

Bernick was motivated to go to law school because she wanted to directly help with some of the ethical issues she was studying in philosophy and bioethics. She says,

“I wanted to directly interact with people a little more. And you know it’s funny because I originally wanted to go to law school to do elder law and help individuals with their end of life planning. I’m really passionate about normalizing end of life conversations and preparations and stuff like that, and I ended up in a field where I don’t have a client. My “client” would be the state of WA because I work for the state at the Department of Health as a staff attorney. We help to make sure people are getting good care. In that way, I kind of circle back to bioethics because I’ve always been interested in healthcare. So I’m back kind of where I started but I’m doing a little more ground floor work versus, I don’t know, if I was an ethicist in a hospital I might just be sitting in a room reading cases and coming out with a ruling, etc.”

Bernick offered some advice to current philosophy students:

“Here’s my small piece of advice: what really got me passionate about philosophy is, find what you’re already interested in – and for me it was robotics – and think about ways that you can incorporate philosophical study into that. That can include ancillary fields. So, because I’m interested in robotics, I want to learn about philosophy of mind because you can think about how humans think and how that can be applied to robots.  I just think that when you’re studying theory after theory and sometimes it’s not about subjects you’re particularly interested in, it can just feel like you’re reading words and it’s dense so finding ways to tie it to stuff you’re already interested in can really enhance the experience and learning. This is just personal to me, this may or may not apply to others but some people can study for the sake of studying and I will tune out if I don’t care about what I’m studying. I think finding a way to tie it to something you’re already passionate about helps because there is a philosophy of everything. It doesn’t even have to be stuff you study in class. I think that’s the best advice I can give that’s more narrowly tailored and has more of a practical application.”   

Bernick also offered her advice to philosophy students thinking about law or graduate school:

“One piece of advice I have for people interested in grad school is to take a gap year. This is totally my personal experience and based off of anecdotal experience, but I think that people who take gap years and work or volunteer or even just rejuvenate themselves after college or whatever you do with your gap year (or years) – I wish I would have done it, for one. Especially if you’re someone who has gone straight through school. This may be different for people who are going to college at a different stage in their life (and that’s also badass if you’re doing that), but for people who have gone straight from kindergarten through (they call them KJDs in law school), it’s not like you’re not going to do well but – anecdotally – it seems that people generally did better when they took a gap year…”

“I think it does have to do with mental fortitude. You’ve rested and I think if you come back to something after a few years, you know that that’s what you want to do and you’re not just like, ‘I don’t want a job so I’m going to go to graduate school.’ Obviously, I carve out exceptions – if you’re someone who knows you’re not going to do this again if you take time off, then there’s something to be said about that because you get a job and you start making money and it becomes harder and harder to go back to being a student and having to put stuff on hold. If you’re like, this is the only time in my life I feel like I can do this – awesome. Or, if you’re coming out of undergrad feeling motivated and energized, then you should definitely do it. But if you’re someone who is like, yeah, I’d like to do grad school but I’m not jumping to do it – also just speaking practically, I hate that everything people do has to be informed and the consideration is how practical it can be for employment down the road.”

When asked about her experience with the job search after law school, she said,

“Everyone is like, ‘it’s always about who you know, it’s always about networking.’ I didn’t network. I don’t network. I can talk to you one-on-one because we’re in a one-on-one conversation, but I don’t like false interactions with people which is what networking is. I did some forced networking but it was never for anything I actually wanted to do and I never followed up on it. So, I think people have done a disservice by overestimating how many people can actually get a job through networking because it may not be one in a million, but it’s more rare than you would think. I think it might be easy to get an internship word-of-mouth where they don’t have to pay you, but with a job, you have to go through the grovel most of the time…”

Alumni Updates: Raffi Ronquillo ’14


The paths that people choose to take can lead them all across the world; in Rafael Ronquillo’s case, his degree in philosophy led him to Guatemala, where he is applying his philosophical background to help a small community.

My name is Rafael (Rafi) Ronquillo and I have been serving in the Peace Corps in the western highlands of Guatemala as a Maternal and Child Health Volunteer since March of 2018. I live in a community of about 6,000 people in the department of Sololá and serve with my partner, Rachel Moore, who is also a Puget Sound graduate, (class of 2016).

While it’s true that these days I’m spending more time eating tortillas than I am writing term papers, I’ve found that studying philosophy in college has had many practical applications here in the Peace Corps. First and foremost, it has helped me understand other’s perspectives in a rich and more contextualized manner. Secondly, spending time reading and grappling with complicated texts and concepts has allowed me to feel comfortable taking a break from something in order to come back to it later with a fresh perspective. These two skills have benefitted me immensely here in Guatemala.

I like to think that regularly having to evaluate written arguments has given me the ability to seek out and engage with differing perspectives. I run into many community members while working at our local health center who are hesitant to seek certain forms of health care, like vaccines. I was initially confused and frustrated as to why so many people were disinclined to receive free, potentially life-saving treatment. It wasn’t until I was able to read more into the country’s violent history with governmental institutions and talked to individuals in my community about their history that I was able to gain a richer perspective on the matter.

The ability to be patient is another skill I’ve found incredibly rewarding here in Guatemala. That skillset is something that the study of philosophy helped me hone. One of my mantras here in the Peace Corps has been, poco a poco, or little by little. This mantra has helped me persevere through countless uncertain work and interpersonal situations here in the country. I’ve been able to step away from a problem, gather evidence, synthesize that evidence with context and form a solid plan of action. This slow and methodical process was something I used countless times while studying at Puget Sound.

I look back fondly at my time spent at Puget Sound. The lessons I’ve learned while studying philosophy have stuck with me over the years since, and I have no doubt they will continue to prove useful in the years to come.




Sienna Murphy ’21 presents her work at Undergraduate Philosophy Colloquium

On November 8th, the 19th Annual Steven Humphrey Undergraduate Philosophy Colloquium was held in Louisville, KY and featured Sienna Murphy ’21. Sienna presented her paper titled “Credibility Excesses as Cases of Testimonial Injustice during the colloquium. The colloquium was featured on Louisville’s The Voice Tribune, you can read about it here.

Sienna sent us the abstract for her paper:

How credible we take a person to be largely depends on our own prejudice. Our judgements can either benefit or harm the person targeted depending on if they embody a stereotype that works for or against them. Miranda Fricker argues that judgements only truly harm the person when we give them less credibility than they deserve, constituting an instance of Testimonial Injustice. In this paper, I challenge Fricker argument and display instances where harm can also occur even when we give the person more credit than they deserve. Ultimately I argue that credibility excesses play a far more central role in testimonial injustice than Fricker claims.

And she reflects on her experience attending the colloquium:

Presenting at the colloquium was an incredible experience! This is my first time presenting at any conference, and it was such an amazing opportunity to not only share my work outside of my university, but also to meet other young philosophers and learn about their passions in the philosophy field. The conference lasted one day with 8 undergraduate speakers and one keynote speaker. We were each given 20 minutes to present, followed by a 15 minute question and answer session. Presenting was an invaluable experience. It was wonderful to share my work outside of my university. In a way, I felt like it was the first time my philosophical work actually had an impact on people other than myself and my professors, and that was an extraordinary feeling! Additionally, it was wonderful to get so much feedback on my paper.

The Louisville philosophy department was extremely welcoming and supportive. Not only did they provide the funding for all of our travel and accommodation expenses, they also generously hosted a reception afterwards at the home of Steven Humphrey. This allowed me to socialize with the other presenters and the faculty members in the philosophy department.

Overall, I would say that my first conference experience was a success! I got to meet some amazing young philosophers, and I learned about my own abilities as a young philosopher!

Nice work, Sienna!